Specific References

This page provides more detailed information on references.

ABS Energy Research, The Wind Power Report Ed 4, 2007, Sample only. The report cost about $1,500. http://www.absenergyresearch.com/cmsfiles/reports/Wind-Power-Report-2007.pdf

The Environmental Leader reports that the US will surpass Germany in wind power production in 2008, “U.S. Leads in Wind Power Production”, 2008 http://www.environmentalleader.com/2008/08/12/us-leads-in-wind-power-production/

Ontario Power Authority, Supply Mix Advice, 2005, Part 4.3 Electricity Generation Technologies: Performance and Cost Characteristics, prepared by the Canadian Energy Research Institute. http://www.powerauthority.on.ca/Storage/15/1107_Part_4.3_CERI_Report_to_OPA_August_24_2005_D.pdf

Quote from the director of the German Energy Agency (dena) in Die Tagezeitung, March 2, 2005 http://www.euractiv.com/en/energy/german-wind-energy-report-opens-heated-debate/article-136239

The Guardian, Report Doubts Future of Wind Power, Feburary 26, 2005, The complete report is published in German except for a summary for which there is an English translation. The summary does not touch on these considerations. http://society.guardian.co.uk/environment/story/0,14124,1425868,00.html

Eurelectric, Latest Industry Statistics as at 31 December 2006 http://www2.eurelectric.org/content/default.asp?PageID=618

Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (US) http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p2.html

The Copenhagen Post, “Local politics could short-circuit a national plan to concentratewind turbines in the country’s windiest areas”, 2008, http://www.cphpost.dk/get/105733.html

Renewable Energy Foundation, Renewable Energy Data Technology Analyses: Wind 2006, 2007, slide 20 of 25 http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/wind.overview.2007.(ii).pdf

University of Victoria (BC), Economics Department, “Utility-scale Wind Power: Impacts of Increased Penetration”, 2005, Conclusion 3. For the University of Victoria report go to http://www.windaction.org/documents/5887 and follow link at bottom of page.

Enernex Corporation, “Wind Generation Technical Characteristics for the NYSERDA Wind Impacts Study”, 2003, page 20, http://www.uwig.org/wind_turbine_tech_charac_draft_final.pdf. See description of UWIG in endnote 62. EnerNex is a US based electric power engineering and consulting firm specializing in the development and application of new electric power technologies.

University of Victoria (BC), Economics Department, “Utility-scale Wind Power: Impacts of Increased Penetration”, 2005, page 25. For the University of Victoria report go to http://www.windaction.org/documents/5887 and follow link at bottom of page.

Bonus Energy AS, “The Wind Turbine: Components and Operation”, 1999, page 5. Although slightly dated it is a good document on many aspects of industrial wind turbines. http://www.windmission.dk/workshop/BonusTurbine.pdf

Corten, Gustave P. and Veldkemp Merman J., “Insects can halve wind-turbine power”, Nature Vol. 41215, July 2001.

ABB Group, “Wind: intermittent Power: continuous”, 2004, cover page, http://www.abb.com/ (search on document title)

Incoteco (Denmark) ApS, Denmark and Energy Storage, 2007, presentation (author has copy)

Adams, Tom, Energy Probe, Review of Wind Power Results in Ontario: May to October 2006, http://www.energyprobe.org/energyprobe/articles/EPreviewofwindpowerresults.pdf

Holttinen, Hannele, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, The impacts of hourly variations of large scale wind power production in the Nordic countries on the system regulation needs. http://lipas.uwasa.fi/itt/teti/sahko/NEPF/vasa_nordiskvind.ppt

University of Victoria (BC), Department of Economics, Utility-scale Wind Power: Impacts of Increased Penetration, 2005, page 10. For the University of Victoria report go to http://www.windaction.org/documents/5887 and follow link at bottom of page.

Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), Integrating Wind Power in the European Power Systems – prerequisites for successful and organic growth, 2004, page 12/13 http://www.ucte.org/_library/otherreports/UCTE-position-on-wind-power.pdf

deENet, Energie mit System (a consortium of 90 research institutions and service providers in Germany) http://www.deenet.org/ . Presentation was made at the Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy EWEA Policy Conference in 2006, and can be accessed through the European Wind Energy Association site at http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/events/2006_grid/Martin_Hoppe.pdf

E.ON Netz, Wind Report 2005, page 9. http://www.eon-netz.com/Ressources/downloads/EON_Netz_Windreport2005_eng.pdf

European Wind Energy Association, Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the European Power Supply, 2005, page 124, http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/grid/051215_Grid_report.pdf

E.ON Netz, Wind Report 2005, page 9.

University of Victoria (BC), Department of Economics, “The Economics of Wind Power: Destabilizing an Electricity Grid with Renewable Power”, 2007, page 14, http://web.uvic.ca/~kooten/REPA/WorkingPaper2007-04.pdf

Spiegel Online International, “Germany Plans Boom in Coal-Fired Plants”, May 21, 2007, http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,472786,00.html

Etherington, Dr. John, Wind Power – ‘Variable’ or ‘Intermittent’? – A Problem Whatever the Word, 2006 http://www.juracretes.ch/d2wfiles/document/5274/5019/0/Wind%20Power%20-%20’Variable’%20or%20’Intermittent’%20.pdf

Royal Academy of Engineering, Response to the House of Lords Science and Technology Select Committee Inquiry into the Practicalities of Developing Renewable Energy, 2003, page 15, http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/responses/practicalities_of_developing_renewable_energy.pdf

Royal Society, Response to the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, 2003, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200304/ldselect/ldsctech/126/126we41.htm

European Wind Energy Association, Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the European Power Supply, 2005, pages 123-I 124, ILEX (now Pëyry Energy Consulting) is a leading European energy consulting company. http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/grid/051215_Grid_report.pdf

E.ON Netz, Wind Report 2004, pages 8-9, http://www.windaction.org/documents/99

University of Victoria (BC), Department of Economics, “Integrating Wind Power in Electricity Grids: an Economic Analysis”, last page, Proceedings of the International Green Energy Conference, 2005,

Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity ((UCTE), “Integrating Wind Power in the European Power Systems – prerequisites for successful and organic growth”, 2004, page 4, http://www.ucte.org/_library/otherreports/UCTE-position-on-wind-power.pdf

Kruesel, Jochen, ABB Power Technologies, “Wind: Intermittent Power: continuous”, 2004, http://www.abb.com/ (search on document title).

Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity ((UCTE), “Integrating Wind Power in the European Power Systems – prerequisites for successful and organic growth”, 2004, page 4, http://www.ucte.org/_library/otherreports/UCTE-position-on-wind-power.pdf

Adams, Tom, Energy Probe, Ontario Wind Power Analysis, PowerPoint presentation.

Oswald, James et al, “Will British weather provide reliable electricity?”, Energy Policy 36 (2008), pages 3202-3215. This article has to be purchased. http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30414/description#description.

Liik, O. et al, Tallinn Technical University, Estonia, Estimation of real emissions reduction caused by wind generators 2003, discussion about Figure 3, http://www.etsap.org/worksh_6_2003/2003P_liik.pdf

E.ON Netz, Wind Report 2005, (see Summary section)

E.ON, website file:///E:/My%20Documents/Wind%20Power/Germany/eon%20says%2095%25%20backup%20required.htm

Leonardo Energy, Electricity Generation in Germany – Scenarios for 2020, 2006, a summary of a VDE (German Engineering Association) analysis. http://www.leonardo-energy.org/drupal/node/192/print

Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, “UK Wind Energy Resource: Variability, Intermittency, Dispersal”, by Eward M. Reeves, 2006, Part 2 on page following Figure 7. This department’s purpose is to help ensure business success in an increasingly competitive world. It is the voice for business across Government. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file31255.pdfhttp://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file31255.pdf

Renewable Energy Foundation, Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Estimating the Potential from Wind-Power, 2004, page 15, http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/david.white.wind.co2.saving.12.04.pdf

Liik, O. et al, Tallinn Technical University, Estonia, Estimation of real emissions reduction caused by wind generators 2003, Part 4, The discussion states that keeping the additional reserve capacity will increase the fuel consumption (emissions) by up to 8.1%. To get the more realistic fuel consumption (emissions) estimate that considers also fluctuations of wind power reduced to the mean power of windmills, the initial fuel consumption curve should be lifted up also by 8.1%. The conclusions show a more conservative amount of 8-10%. http://www.etsap.org/worksh_6_2003/2003P_liik.pdf

University of Victoria (BC), Department of Economics,Utility-scale Wind Power: Impacts of Increased Penetration”, 2005, page 23. The study states that the impact of wind penetration on thermal gas plant is dramatic and is akin to the impact of fuel economy on vehicles switching from highway to city driving. Examples from the top ten fuel misers in Canada can be found at http://en.autos.sympatico.msn.ca/vehicle_guides/article.aspx?cp-documentid=636024 and include 2005 Honda Civic 7.6/5.9 L/100km, giving 29% efficiency loss, and 2005 Honda Civic (hybrid) 4.9/4.6, giving 7% efficiency loss). For the University of Victoria report go to http://www.windaction.org/documents/5887 and follow link at bottom of page.

Schleede Glen R., Misplaced State Government Faith in Wind Energy – This time by the Kansas Energy Council, 2005, page 18. http://johnrsweet.com/Personal/Wind/PDF/Schleede-KansasWind-20050301.pdf

Royal Academy of Engineering, The Cost of Generating Electricity, 2004, Annex 1, http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Cost_of_Generating_Electricity.pdf

Ontario Power Authority, Supply Mix Advice, 2005, Part 4.3 Electricity Generation Technologies: Performance and Cost Characteristics, prepared by the Canadian Energy Research Institute. http://www.powerauthority.on.ca/Page.asp?PageID=122&ContentID=1139&SiteNodeID=139

Pembina Institute, “Evidence in Support of a Greener Alternative to Ontario’s Proposed Integrated Power Supply Plan”, 2008, submitted to the Ontario Energy Board http://pubs.pembina.org/reports/oeb-evidence-summary.pdf

Bradley, Robert L. Jr., Renewable Energy: Not Cheap, Not “Green”, 1997, http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=1139&full=1 . Although this document is not new it contains many considerations that are still valid today.

Helm, Dieter (an economist, specialising in utilities, infrastructure, regulation and the environment, and concentrates on the energy, water and transport sectors in Britain and Europe), The EU Climate Change package – even more radical than it looks, 2008, http://www.dieterhelm.co.uk/publications/Commentary_Jan08.pdf

Renewable Energy Foundation, Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Estimating the Potential from Wind-Power, 2004, page 14, http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/david.white.wind.co2.saving.12.04.pdf

Etherington, Dr. John, Wind Power – ‘Variable’ or ‘Intermittent’? – A Problem Whatever the Word, 2006, page 5, http://www.juracretes.ch/d2wfiles/document/5274/5019/0/Wind%20Power%20-%20’Variable’%20or%20’Intermittent’%20.pdf. The Tyndall Centre report can be found at http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/research/theme2/final_reports/t2_24.pdf. The quote can be found on page 24.

Etherington, Dr. John, “The case against Wind Farms”, 2006, page 7. This document is a extensive compendium of information on wind power. http://www.countryguardian.net/Case%202006.htm

Renewable Energy Foundation, Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Estimating the Potential from Wind-Power, 2004, pages 9 and 16, http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/david.white.wind.co2.saving.12.04.pdf

Ontario Power Authority, Supply Mix Advice, 2005, section 2.6 page 176 for CCGT and OCGT. http://www.powerauthority.on.ca/Storage/18/1350_Part_2-6_Methodologies_and_Assumptions_Adopted.pdf

Ontario Power Workers’ Union, A Better Energy Plan, http://www.abetterenergyplan.com/the_plan_clean_coal.php

EEA (European Environmental Agency), Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2007. Download through http://www.mybloop.com/download-interstitial/SPfIIY

White, David J, Danish Wind: too good to be true, The Utilities Journal, July 2004, page 39, http://www.aweo.org/White-DenmarkTooGood.pdf

Schleede Glen R., Misplaced State Government Faith in Wind Energy – This time by the Kansas Energy Council, 2005, page 20. http://johnrsweet.com/Personal/Wind/PDF/Schleede-KansasWind-20050301.pdf

European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/energy_transport/figures/pocketbook/doc/2007/2007_energy_en.pdf

The Christian Science Monitor, As Windmills Spread, some Germans Balk at ‘Asparagus Fields’ 2004, http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0505/p01s04-woeu.htm

German Energy Agency (dena), dena Grid Study, 2005, http://www.dena.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Download

Leonardo Energy, Electricity Generation in Germany – Scenarios for 2020, 2006, a summary of a VDE (German Engineering Association) analysis. http://www.leonardo-energy.org/drupal/node/192/print

Alt, Helmut, “The economics of wind energy within the generation mix”, 2003, page 27, http://www.viewsofscotland.org/library/docs/Economics_of_Wind_Energy_Nov03.pdf

ESB National Grid, Impact of Wind Power Generation in Ireland on the Operation of Conventional Plant and the Economic Implications, 2004, Ireland, http://www.eirgrid.com/Eirgridportal/uploads/Publications/Wind%20Impact%20Study%20-%20main%20report.pdf

Renewable Energy Foundation, Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Estimating the Potential from Wind-Power, 2004, page 31, http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/david.white.wind.co2.saving.12.04.pdf

Renewable Energy Foundation, Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Estimating the Potential from Wind-Power, 2004, page 20, http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/david.white.wind.co2.saving.12.04.pdf

ESB National Grid, Impact of Wind Power Generation in Ireland on the Operation of Conventional Plant and the Economic Implications, 2004, Ireland, pages 29 (Capacity Factor) and 34

http://www.eirgrid.com/Eirgridportal/uploads/Publications/Wind%20Impact%20Study%20-%20main%20report.pdf

University of Victoria (BC), Department of Economics, “The Economics of Wind Power: Destabilizing an Electricty Grid with Renewable Power, 2007, page 20, http://web.uvic.ca/~kooten/REPA/WorkingPaper2007-04.pdf

German Energy Agency (dena) study, “Planning of the Grid Integration of Wind Energy in Germany Onshore and Offshore up to the Year 2020 (dena Grid Study), 2005, page 14 http://www.wind-energie.de/fileadmin/dokumente/Themen_A-Z/Netzausbau/stud_summary-dena_grid.pdf

German Energy Agency (dena) study, “Planning of the Grid Integration of Wind Energy in Germany Onshore and Offshore up to the Year 2020 (dena Grid Study), 2005, page 14 http://www.wind-energie.de/fileadmin/dokumente/Themen_A-Z/Netzausbau/stud_summary-dena_grid.pdf

Institute of Energy Economics at the University at Cologne (EWI) et al (consortium), Planning of the Grid Integration of Wind Energy in Germany Onshore and Offshore up to the year 2020, 2005, Basic Scenario page 20 http://www.wind-watch.org/documents/wp-content/uploads/dena-integratingwind2020.pdf

Ontario Power Authority, Supply Mix Advice, 2005, section 1.2 page 34 http://www.powerauthority.on.ca/Storage/18/1339_Part_1-2_Supply_Mix_Advice_and_Recommendations.pdf

Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), Integrating Wind Power in the European Power Systems – prerequisites for successful and organic growth, 2004, pages 3-5/13 http://www.ucte.org/_library/otherreports/UCTE-position-on-wind-power.pdf

European Transmission System Operators, European Wind Integrations Study: Towards a Successful Integration of Wind Power into European Electricity Grids. 2007, http://www.etso-net.org/upload/documents/Final-report-EWIS-phase-I-approved.pdf

Consortium of DEWI/E.ON Netz/EWI/RWE Transport Grid, Electricity/VE Transmission, “ Planning for the Grid Integration of Wind Energy in Germany Onshore and Offshore up to the Year 2020”, 2005, page 10, http://www.wind-watch.org/documents/wp-content/uploads/dena-integratingwind2020.pdf

European Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity )UCTE), Final Report: System Disturbance on 4 November, 2006, 2007, http://www.ucte.org/_library/otherreports/Final-Report-20070130.pdf

European Transmission System Operators, European Wind Integrations Study: Towards a Successful Integration of Wind Power into European Electricity Grids. 2007, page 3, http://www.etso-net.org/upload/documents/Final-report-EWIS-phase-I-approved.pdf

Ontario Power Authority, Integrated Power Supply Plan, 2007, Exhibit D, Tab 1, Schedule 1, page 10, Figure 8 http://www.powerauthority.on.ca/Storage/53/4861_D-1-1_corrected_071019.pdf

Mason, VC, Wind Power in Denmark, 2007 http://www.countryguardian.net/2007.%20Wind%20power%20in%20Denmark.%20%5BSept.%202007%20version%20plus%20Refs%5D.pdf

White, David J, Danish Wind: too good to be true, The Utilities Journal, July 2004, page 38, http://www.aweo.org/White-DenmarkTooGood.pdf

Incoteco (Denmark) ApS, Why wind power works for Denmark, Civil Engineering 158, May 2005, http://www.incoteco.com/upload/CIEN.158.2.66.pdf

Harrrington, Mark (Newsday Staff Writer), Study takes air out of wind power’s sails, 2006, quoting from the ABS Energy report (see note1)http://www.surfridercli.org/images_campaigns/windfarm/10.30.2006c_newsday.pdf

Royal Academy of Engineering, “Developing a Sustainable Energy Strategy”, 2006, page65, http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/publications/list/reports/Energy_Seminars_Report.pdf

Mason, VC, Wind Power in Denmark, 2007 http://www.countryguardian.net/2007.%20Wind%20power%20in%20Denmark.%20%5BSept.%202007%20version%20plus%20Refs%5D.pdf

Mason, VC, Wind Power in West Denmark: Lessons for the UK http://www.windaction.org/documents/262http://www.countryguardian.net/2007.%20Wind%20power%20in%20Denmark.%20%5BSept.%202007%20version%20plus%20Refs%5D.pdf

Renewable Energy Foundation, “Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Estimating the Potential Contribution from Wind Power”, 2004, page 27 http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/david.white.wind.co2.saving.12.04.pdf

Schleede Glen R., Misplaced State Government Faith in Wind Energy – This time by the Kansas Energy Council, 2005, page 11 (note 23). http://johnrsweet.com/Personal/Wind/PDF/Schleede-KansasWind-20050301.pdf

Danish Energy Authority, “Energy Statistics 2006”, page 4, http://www.ens.dk/graphics/Publikationer/Statistik_UK/Energy_statics_2006/html/chapter04.htm

White, David J, Danish Wind: too good to be true, The Utilities Journal, July 2004, http://www.aweo.org/White-DenmarkTooGood.pdf

White, David J., Utilities Journal, “Danish Wind: Too Good to be True?”, page 38, http://www.aweo.org/White-DenmarkTooGood.pdf

International Energy Agency http://iea.org/Textbase/stats/electricitydata.asp?COUNTRY_CODE=US

Earth Policy Institute, http://www.earth-policy.org/Indicators/Wind/2008_data.htm For more information on this organization see http://www.earth-policy.org/About/index.htm.

Renewable Energy Foundation, Renewable Energy Data Technology Analyses: Wind 2006, 2007 http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/wind.overview.2007.(ii).pdf

Renewable Energy Foundation, “Reduction in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Estimating the Potential Contribution from Wind Power”, 2004, page 26 http://www.ref.org.uk/Files/david.white.wind.co2.saving.12.04.pdf

Alberta Energy, Energy Statistics, http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/Electricity/682.asp

Alberta Electric System Operator, Incremental Impact on System Operations with Increased Wind Power Penetration, presentation to Stakeholder Meeting October 4, 2005. This presentation no longer is available online. The diagrams illustrate the problems. The final report is at http://www.uwig.org/AESOIncremental_Effects_on_System_Operations_with_Increased_Wind_Power_Penetration_rev_2_3.pdf. UWIG is the Utility Wind Integration Group which provides a forum for the critical analysis of wind technology for utility applications and to serve as a source of credible information on the status of wind technology and deployment. The group’s mission is to accelerate the development and application of good engineering and operational practices supporting the appropriate integration of wind power into the electric system. This will be accomplished through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with The U.S. Department of Energy, its National Renewable Energy Laboratory and utility research organizations.

Alberta Electric System Operator, “Market and Operational Framework for Wind Integration in Alberta, March 2007, http://www.aeso.ca/files/Wind_Framework_7March07.pdf

Financial Post, Alberta turns to natural gas after wind lessens reliability, April 20, 2007 http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/financialpost/story.html?id=f7ef4e6d-29f0-4a5e-95c3-084ff5eac8c0&k=3367

UK Sustainable Development Commission, “A guide to the key issues surrounding onshore wind power development in the UK.” Source obtained from EWEA document (endnote 10). http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications/downloads/Wind_Energy-NovRev2005.pdf

Sharman, Hugh, Incoteco (Denmark) Aps, “Why wind power works for Denmark”, Proceedings of ICE, Civil Engineering 158, May 2005, page 69, http://www.incoteco.com/upload/CIEN.158.2.66.pdf

Bonus Energy AS, “The Wind Turbine: Components and Operation”, 1999, page 20. Although slightly dated it is a good document on many aspects of industrial wind turbines. http://www.windmission.dk/workshop/BonusTurbine.pdf

Enernex Corporation, “Wind Generation Technical Characteristics for the NYSERDA Wind Impacts Study”, 2003, http://www.uwig.org/wind_turbine_tech_charac_draft_final.pdf.

Sharman, Hugh, Incoteco (Denmark) Aps, “Why wind power works for Denmark”, Proceedings of ICE, Civil Engineering 158, May 2005, http://www.incoteco.com/upload/CIEN.158.2.66.pdf

E.ON Netz, “Wind Report 2005” http://www.eon-netz.com/Ressources/downloads/EON_Netz_Windreport2005_eng.pdf

Last updated November 15, 2008

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